# Photonium

*also:* **The neutrino theory of light**

It makes no sense to talk of elementary massless particle possessing orbital
angular momentum. The concept of orbital angular momentum is only for the
massive composite particle. The hydrogen atom is the most familiar model,
though the simplest ones are the fermion-antifermion bonded states -
positronium, quarkonium(s), etc. The “onium” concept originates from Jordan
(1928) and de Broglie (1932) and refers to the photon, viz. *photonium*. The
photonium is commonly known as “The neutrino theory of light” after the work of
Born and Nath (1936).

The photon behaviour in the experiments with CRE-filtered beam is consistent with the model of photonium and j-j coupling scheme of the excited photon.

The photonium has an internal axis without direction (Perkins, 2004). In a ground state, this axis can generate the usual polarization states with helicity. The excited photon (i.e. photon with orbital angular momentum or massive photon) has helicity which is not Lorentz invariant. For the photon state of rest, the helicity is one of the possible states in the terms of the presentation. The photon second quantization axis is associated with the orbital angular momentum of the excited photon.

The photon chi-variable is the angle between the polarization axis and the second quantization axis. Its natural domain is consistent with the Pointing vector solution of the classical theory.

The photon Lambda-variable behaves like the orbital quantum number . It can be suggested that, following the de Broglie rule: .

The photonium model predicts results which can be experimentally tested. For example, the ground state is fourfold degenerated - three of the states transform as a vector (triplet) and one as a scalar (singlet). If the excited photon has a mechanism for fine splitting, two kinds of photons with different parity and probabilities of 25% and 75% are expected. The calculations (asymptotic approximation of the BHS-transformation) give for a “pinhole” and Gaussian scalar beam that the inner ring of the Poggendorff pattern contains 28.79% and 20.24% of the total beam intensity, respectively (Berry, 2004). The existence of energy gap for the excited photon, if this is the case, is an indication that the photon is quasiboson but not a pure boson (Perkins, 2001).

It is a great temptation to go further in paralleling the CR optics and the photonium. But the logical deduction leads to conclusions even more incredible than the parity violation:

The excited photon state has a larger spatial extension (wavelength) than the one of the ground state. The larger is the wavelength, the lower is the photon field energy . Than the energy conservation law for the system CRE + photon requires the massless fermion-antifermion pair to acquire rest mass. Could this be a mechanism for generation of mass? Could this be a reason for the starlight redshift?

Spectroscopic data for the CRE-filtered beam are of highest need.